Al-Shabaka Policy Member Valentina Azarova is a lecturer in human rights and international law at Birzeit University’s Graduate Studies School and a research fellow at its Institute of Law. She co-founded the Human Rights and International Law Program at Al-Quds University, which she headed for three years, and taught for five. She has worked with civil society in the region for over seven years, including as researcher with HaMoked – Center for the Defence of the Individual; senior legal researcher with Al-Haq; and associate with the MATTIN Group. She works on the enforcement of international law and human rights against states and corporate actors with a focus on situations of armed conflict and military occupation. Valentina received her PhD from the Irish Centre for Human Rights, National University of Ireland, Galway.