Al-Shabaka Policy Member Valentina Azarova is a post-doctoral researcher at the Center for Global Public Law, Koç University Law School, Istanbul, Turkey. She is also a legal adviser with the Global Legal Action Network (GLAN). Valentina received her PhD from the Irish Centre for Human Rights, National University of Ireland, Galway. She was a co-founding member of the Al-Quds Bard College, Al-Quds University, where she taught and directed the human rights program for five years, and at Birzeit University’s Graduate Studies School. She has worked with HaMoked – Center for the Defence of the Individual; Al-Haq; and the MATTIN Group. Her research looks at the role of third states in the enforcement of international law and the contribution made by domestic regulatory processes to transnational law, with a focus on situations of armed conflict and occupation as well as other serious human rights violations. Her publications and reports can be accessed here.