Israel recently launched a spate of attacks on UNRWA, the UN Agency serving Palestinian refugees, which could herald another attempt to shut the Agency down. Is UNRWA perpetuating Palestine's conflict with Israel, as its Israeli critics allege, or does it provide essential relief and work for millions of Palestinian refugees who were displaced from their homes in 1948? Does UNRWA act as a catalyst to absorb the refugees in the Arab world and to contain their political struggle as its Palestinian critics allege, or does it keep their cause alive and visible on the international scene as its Israeli and Western critics allege? In this policy brief, Al-Shabaka Policy Advisor Randa Farah responds to UNRWA's critics, while also casting a critical eye at the Agency. In doing so, she reminds us of the different reasons why the Agency was founded in the first place.